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Thursday, July 2, 2020

List of major human organs

This post is a list of major human organs. There are 79 organs listed below alphabetically. License: CC BY-SA 3.0


1. Adrenal glands

"The adrenal glands are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol." (Wikipedia: Adrenal gland, 6.20.21 UTC 01:29)


2. Anus

"The anus is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth. Its function is to control the expulsion of feces..." (Wikipedia: Anus, 6.24.21 UTC 21:29)


3. Arteries

"An artery is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the human heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, brain, etc.). Most arteries carry oxygenated blood.; the two exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical arteries which carry deoxygenated blood..." (Wikipedia: Artery, 6.8.21 UTC 13:55)


4. Bladder

"The bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and other vertebrates that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination." (Wikipedia: Bladder, 8.14.21 UTC 06:56)


5. Blood cells

"Red blood cells or erythrocytes, primarily carry oxygen and collect carbon dioxide through the use of hemoglobin... White blood cells or leukocytes, are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials." (Wikipedia: Blood cell, 8.5.21 UTC 16:07)


6. Bone marrow

"Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones... It is composed of hematopoietic cells, marrow adipose tissue, and supportive stromal cells." (Wikipedia: Bone marrow, 8.11.21 UTC 21:35)


7. Brain

"A brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals." (Wikipedia: Brain, 8.5.21 UTC 10:18)


8. Brainstem

"The brainstem is the posterior stalk-like part of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord... It has critical roles of regulating cardiac and respiratory function, helping to control heart rate and breathing rate." (Wikipedia: Brainstem, 5.23.21 UTC 08:35)


9. Bronchi

"A bronchus is a passage or airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs." (Wikipedia: Bronchus, 8.5.21 UTC 04:03)


10. Bulbourethral glands

"The bulbourethral gland or Cowper's gland is one of two small exocrine glands in the reproductive system of many male mammals... The bulbourethral glands are responsible for producing a pre-ejaculate fluid called Cowper's fluid..." (Wikipedia: Bulbourethral gland, 7.16.21 UTC 09:38)


11. Capillaries

"A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometers in diameter and having a wall one endothelial cell thick. They are the smallest blood vessels in the body: they convey blood between the arterioles and venules." (Wikipedia: Capillary, 8.6.21 UTC 20:56)


12. Cardiac muscle

"[Cardiac] muscle] is involuntary, striated muscle that constitutes the main tissue of the wall of the heart." (Wikipedia: Cardiac muscle, 7.19.21 UTC 12:47)


13. Cerebellum

"The cerebellum is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates... In humans, the cerebellum plays an important role in motor control." (Wikipedia: Cerebellum, 6.18.21 UTC 06:13)


14. Ciliary body

"The ciliary body is a part of the eye that includes the ciliary muscle, which controls the shape of the lens and the ciliary epithelium, which produces the aqueous humor." (Wikipedia: Ciliary body, 7.14.21 UTC 23:20)


15. Clitoris

"In humans, the visible portion - the glans - is at the front junction of the labia minora (inner lips), above the opening of the urethra." (Wikipedia: Clitoris, 8.16.21 UTC 21:32)


16. Cochlea

"The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing. It is a spiral-shaped cavity in the bony labyrinth, in humans making 2.75 turns around its axis, the modiolus." (Wikipedia: Cochlea, 7.27.21 UTC 00:48)


17. Cornea

"The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil and anterior chamber. The cornea, with the anterior chamber and lens, refracts light, with the cornea accounting for approximately two thirds of the eye's total optical power." (Wikipedia: Cornea, 8.17.21 UTC 17:35)


18. Cranial nerves

"Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), of which there are conventionally considered twelve pairs." (Wikipedia: Cranial nerves, 6.11.21 UTC 23:21)


19. Diaphragm

"The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity." (Wikipedia: Thoracic diaphragm, 5.16.21 UTC 01:58)


20. Eardrum

"...the eardrum... is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. Its function is to transmit sound from the air to the ossicles in side the middle ear, and then to the oval window in the fluid-filled cochlea." (Wikipedia: Eardrum, 1.14.21 UTC 01:45)


21. Enteric nervous system

"The enteric nervous system... consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract." (Wikipedia: Enteric nervous system, 8.3.21 UTC 19:19)


22. Epididymis

"The epididymis is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system." (Wikipedia: Epididymis, 6.15.21 UTC 06:42)


23. Esophagus

"The esophagus... is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach." (Wikipedia: Esophagus, 7.22.21 UTC 21:59)


24. Fallopian tubes

"The fallopian tubes... are tubes that stretch from the uterus to the ovaries, and are part of the female reproductive system... The fertilized egg passes through the Fallopian tubes from the ovaries of female mammals to the uterus." (Wikipedia: Fallopian tube, 7.24.21 UTC 17:40)


25. Gallbladder

"In vertebrates the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before its is released into the small intestine... where the bile helps in the digestion of fats" (Wikipedia: Gallbladder, 8.5.21 UTC 04:13)


26. Heart

"The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system." (Wikipedia: Heart, 8.5.21 UTC 14:46)


27. Iris

"In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris is a thin, annular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina." (Wikipedia: Iris, 6.11.21 UTC 15:40)


28. Kidneys

"The kidney participates in whole-body homeostasis, regulating acid-base balance, electrolyte concentrations, extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure... The kidneys excrete a variety of waste products produced by metabolism into the urine." (Wikipedia: Kidneys, 7.28.21 UTC 04:06)


29. Large intestine

"The large intestine, also known as the large bowel, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates. Water is absorbed here and the remaining waste material is stored as feces before being removed by defecation." (Wikipedia: Large intestine, 8.14.21 UTC 21:30)


30. Larynx

"The larynx commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the next involved in breathing, producing sound and protecting the trachea against food aspiration." (Wikipedia: Larynx, 8.18.21 UTC 11:12)


31. Lens

"The lens is a transparent biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina. By changing shape, it functions to change the focal length of the eye so that it can focus on objects at various distances..." (Wikipedia: Lens, 5.15.21 UTC 22:12)


32. Ligaments

"A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones." (Wikipedia: Ligaments, 5.18.21 UTC 03:51)


33. Liver

"The liver is an organ only found in vertebrates which detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion and growth." (Wikipedia: Liver, 8.17.21 UTC 07:40)


34. Lungs

"Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange." (Wikipedia: Lungs, 8.14.21 UTC 08:57)


35. Lymph node

"Lymph nodes are important for the proper functioning of the immune system, acting as filters for foreign particles including cancer cells, but have not detoxification function." (Wikipedia: Lymph node, 7.7.21 UTC 05:12)


36. Lymphatic vessel

"The lymphatic vessels are thin walled vessels (tubes) structured like blood vessels, that carry lymph." (Wikipedia: Lymphatic vessel, 8.9.21 UTC 13:$5)


37. Mammary glands

"A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and other mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring." (Wikipedia: Mammary gland, 7.16.21 UTC 02:26)


38. Mesentery

"The mesentery is an organ that attaches the intestines to the posterior abdominal wall in humans and is formed by the double fold of peritoneum. It helps in storing fat and allowing blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves to supply the intestines, among other functions." (Wikipedia: Mesentery, 8.10.21 UTC 19:14)


39. Olfactory epithelium

"The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity... directly responsible for detecting odors." (Wikipedia: Olfactory epithelium, 12.15.20 UTC 20:08)


40. Ossicles

"The ossicles are three bones in the middle ear that are among the smallest bones in the human body. They serve to transmit sounds from the air to the fluid-filled labyrinth (cochlea)." (Wikipedia: Ossicles, 8.10.21 UTC 20:49)


41. Ovaries

"The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus, where it it may become fertilized by a sperm." (Wikipedia: Ovary, 6.4.21 UTC 17:16)


42. Pancreas

"As an endocrine gland, it functions mostly to regulate blood sugar levels, secreting the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide." (Wikipedia: Pancreas, 8.3.21 UTC 13:13)


43. Parathyroid glands

"The parathyroid glands produces and secretes parathyroid hormone in response to a low blood calcium, which plays a key role in regulating the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones." (Wikipedia: Parathyroid glands, 6.13.21 UTC 01:08)


44. Penis

"A penis is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate females (or hermaphrodites) during copulation." (Wikipedia: Penis, 8.7.21 UTC 20:06)


45. Pharynx

"In humans, the pharynx is part of the digestive system and the conducting zone of the respiratory system." (Wikipedia: Pharynx, 8.5.21 UTC 04:03)


46. Pineal gland

"The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin-derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles." (Wikipedia: Pineal gland, 8.14.21 UTC 07:32)


47. Pituitary gland

"Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help to control growth, blood pressure, energy management, all functions of the sex organs, thyroid glands and metabolism as well as some aspects of pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding, water/salt concentration at the kidneys, temperature regulation and pain relief." (Wikipedia: Pituitary gland, 5.28.21 UTC 23:02)


48. Placenta

"The placenta is a temporary fetal organ that begins developing from the blastocyst shortly after implantation. It plays critical roles in facilitating nutrient, gas and waste exchange between the physically separate maternal and fetal circulations..." (Wikipedia: Placenta, 8.14.21 UTC 04:47)


49. Prostate

"The prostate secretes fluid which becomes part of semen. Semen is the fluid emitted (ejaculated) by males during the sexual response." (Wikipedia: Prostate, 8.10.21 UTC 21:57)


50. Retina

"The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs... The neural retina consists of several layers of neurons interconnected by synapses, and is supported by an outer layer of pigmented epithelial cells." (Wikipedia: Retina, 7.10.21 UTC 05:03)


51. Salivary glands

"The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts. Humans have three paired major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) as well as hundreds of minor salivary glands." (Wikipedia: Salivary gland, 7.30.21 UTC 19:10)


52. Semicircular canals

"The semicircular canals... are three semicircular, interconnected tubes located in the innermost part of each ear, the inner ear... The semicircular ducts provide sensory input for experiences of rotary movements." (Wikipedia: Semicircular canals, 5.21.21 UTC 10:46)


53. Seminal vesicles

"The seminal vesicles... are a pair of two coiled tubular glands that lie behind the urinary bladder of some male mammals. They secrete fluid that partly composes semen." (Wikipedia: Seminal vesicles, 7.13.21 UTC 16:32)


54. Skeletal muscle

"Skeletal muscles.. are organs of the vertebrate muscular system that are mostly attached by tendons to bones of the skeleton...Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles under the control of the somatic nervous system." (Wikipedia: Skeletal Muscle, 8.2.21 UTC 03:46)


55. Skeleton

"The skeleton is a structural frame that supports an animal body... The skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage." (Wikipedia: Skeleton, 8.19.21 UTC 07:12)


56. Skin

"Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal with three main functions: protection, regulation and sensation... The skin interfaces with the environment and is the first line of defense from external factors." (Wikipedia: Skin, 8.12.21 UTC 05:53)


57. Small intestine

"The small intestine... is an organ in the gastrointestinal tract where most of the end absorption of nutrients and minerals from food takes place." (Wikipedia: Small intestine, 8.14.21 UTC 08:30)


58. Smooth muscle

"Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs, including the stomach, intestines, bladder and uterus; in the walls of passageways, such as blood and lymph vessels, and in the tracts of the respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems." (Wikipedia: Smooth muscle, 7.19.21 UTC 12:47)


59. Spinal cord

"The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue... The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of nerve signals from the motor cortex to the body, and from the afferent fibers of the sensory neurons to the sensory cortex." (Wikipedia: Spinal cord, 8.5.21 UTC 04:35)


60. Spinal nerves

"A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. In the human body there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column." (Wikipedia: Spinal nerve, 6.4.21 UTC 21: 39)


61. Spleen

"The spleen plays important roles in regard to red blood cells and the immune system. It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood, which can be valuable in case of hemorrhagic shock, and also recycles iron." (Wikipedia: Spleen, 8.5.21 UTC 04:17)


62. Stomach

"The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals including several invertebrates." (Wikipedia: Stomach, 7.18.21 UTC 03:02)


63. Subcutaneous tissue

"The subcutaneous tissue, also called the hypodermis... is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates... The hypodermis consists primarily of loose connective tissue It contains larger blood vessels and nerves tan those found in the dermis." (Wikipedia: Subcutaneous tissue, 4.19.21 UTC 16:14)


64. Taste buds

"Taste buds contain the taste receptor cells, which are known as gustatory cells... These structures are involved in detecting the five elements of taste perception: salty, sour, bitter, sweet and umami." (Wikipedia: Taste bud, 7.5.21 UTC 18:00)


65. Tendons

"A tendon or sinew is a tough high-tensile-strength band of dense fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bond and is capable of withstanding tension and transmit the mechanical forces of muscle contraction to the skeletal system." (Wikipedia: Tendon, 8.4.21 UTC 17:03)


66. Teeth

"A tooth... is a hard calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food." (Wikipedia: Tooth, 7.6.21 UTC 13:32)


67. Testes

"The functions of the testes are to produce both sperm and androgens, primarily testosterone." (Wikipedia: Testicle, 8.5.21 UTC 20:58)


68. Thymus

"The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system. Within the thymus, thymus cell lymphocytes or T cells mature. T cells are critical to the adaptive immune system, where the body adapts specifically to foreign invaders." (Wikipedia: Thymus, 7.16.21 UTC 23:52)


69. Thyroid

"The thyroid gland, is an endocrine gland in vertebrates. In humans it is in the neck and consists of two connected lobes... The thyroid hormones influence the metabolic rate and protein synthesis, and in children, growth and development." (Wikipedia: Thyroid, 7.1.21 UTC 18:17)


70. Tonsils

"The tonsil are a set of lymphoid organs facing into the aerodigestive tract... These organs play an important role in the immune system." (Wikipedia: Tonsil, 8.3.21 UTC 12:26)


71. Trachea

"The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi of the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs." (Wikipedia: Trachea, 8.5.21 UTC 04:03)


72. Ureter

"The ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder." (Wikipedia: Ureter, 4.25.21 UTC 23:55)


73. Urethra

"The urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body of both females and males." (Wikipedia: Urethra, 9.27.23 UTC 14:59)


74. Uterus

"[The uterus] accommodates the embryonic and fetal development of one or more embryos until birth... The reproductive function of the human uterus is to accept a fertilized ovum, a zygote which travels along the fallopian tube." (Wikipedia: Uterus, 9.27.23 UTC 14:59)


75. Vagina

"In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract. The vagina allows for sexual intercourse and birth. It also channels menstrual flow (menses)... as part of the monthly menstrual cycle." (Wikipedia: Vagina, 8.10.21 UTC 16:08)


76. Veins

"Veins are blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins..." (Wikipedia: Vein, 5.16.21 UTC 02:57)


77. Ventricular system

"The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities in the brain. Within each ventricle is a region of choroid plexus where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced." (Wikipedia: Ventricular system, 5.6.21 UTC 13:13)


78. Vas deferens

"[The vas deferens] transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation." (Wikipedia: Vas deferens, 8.9.21 UTC 21:38)


79. Vulva

"The vulva consists of the external female sex organs... The vulva includes the entrance to the vagina, which leads to the uterus and provides a double layer of protection..." (Wikipedia: Vulva, 8.9.21 UTC 02:18)